If possible, standardize tools keeping them in the same position from one machine to the next and leaving two open “variable” spots in the tool changer.
My first suggestion is standardizing tools. This is mainly a concern in CNC shops since you are manually loading tools on your manual machines anyway. The first step in standardizing your tools is accomplished in your CAM software. The tool database needs to be created. I would always suggest starting from scratch. As you program jobs and figure out which tools are the most common the picture will become clear. Make a tool database that only holds the tools you use – it makes programming much simpler rather than having to play with filters and tool types. It may take time to decide what works best for your shop but if Tool 1 is a 6mm single flute end mill on machine 1 it should be the same on all of your milling machines. The last machine shop I worked in ran tools in numerical order for each job. I would run anywhere from two to six jobs a day, and each job used a different set of tools. Every job started at Tool 1, and unless it was a lucky day that tool was different from the last Tool 1. Some of these jobs used upwards of twelve tools. On a busy day (six jobs, twelve tools each) you are loading seventy-two tools by hand. That doesn’t include any tools that needed to be changed in the holder. Very inefficient. Now let’s say we standardized our tools. In every machine in our shop Tools 1-10 are the same, and we will leave two positions open for variables. Tool 1 here is the same as Tool 1 over there. Got it? OK, now on that same busy day with six jobs, each using twelve tools you are loading up to twelve variable tools by hand. Twelve is more efficient than seventy-two (you can refer to my blog on shop math if necessary, but I think you see my point). You will have so much time to research sleepers in your fantasy football league that you are a shoe-in for the championship. You’re welcome.
The next topic to discuss is the actual setup sheet. This is a sheet that should accompany the job on some level. To be honest my preferred method for this has always been a filing cabinet with manila folders. I know, digital age and all that. There is a place for that, but especially when you are trying to assimilate old guys who still aren’t quite sure how to check their email sometimes relying on digital paperwork can be difficult. If the other programmer saves a file in the wrong location or makes changes without telling you then the whole system can fall apart. Program a job, take a PENCIL (no pens!) and document the details. My setup sheets always included the part number, fixture location, tooling list, and a brief description of the setup including the X, Y and Z zero points and any pertinent information on fixture location or operation. Using a pencil was always an important aspect for me because not only can you modify what you write but you will be able to see if somebody else made a change and “forgot” to tell you. The old guys get nostalgic with pencils too. It puts them at ease, makes them a little more docile and cooperative. I’ve experienced mixed results with that last point, so be wary. Anyway, the point here is that you get a work order and you can go to your filing cabinet to pull that job number. You can write the current revision level on the folder itself or the setup sheet to keep compliance happy, and when the job is done it goes back into the filing cabinet. You can most definitely make an argument for doing this all digitally, and if you have a good system it is probably the way to go. With a digital system you don’t have as much paper floating around, you don’t have to worry about physical damage (losing documentation in a fire for example) as long as you back everything up, preferably on an off-site server. Digital documentation management is also more efficient since you are pulling the document off the same server you are pulling your program, all at the same time. I have yet to use a digital system that didn’t have problems, hence my preference for the old filing cabinet but if you can manage a digital system and avoid any major headaches you are ahead of the game.
Finally, I will talk about documentation. This one is easy. You will be using the folder and setup sheet that we already talked about, which has all of the information on it that we already talked about. The point here is document everything. While you were running the job on third shift Tool 2 was chattering a lot so you changed out the tool and slowed your feed rate. They lost power briefly on first shift so they had to reload the program. How will they know what changes they need to make? I’ll tell you! When the first shift operator came in this morning you were drooling on yourself so much he couldn’t understand any of the words coming out of your mouth, but he’s too nice to say anything. Instead, he checked the setup sheet and saw the detailed note you left about the issue you had and how you fixed it. Good work! Now just in case you never updated the server he can make the change permanent and we’re done. See? I was able to teach you something after all. DOCUMENT EVERYTHING, no matter how small or insignificant it may seem. As I have stated before, it’s usually the small stuff that makes the difference. There is always a different way to do things and the people who can recognize where their process is lacking are already ahead of the game.